Litigation as enterprise technique is widespread in all industries. In reality, the very risk of litigation is usually sufficient to elicit the specified response from one’s competitor. In the true property business, particularly prior to now few years, antitrust litigation as enterprise technique has turn out to be extra prevalent.

Current antitrust lawsuits in actual property

The latest instance of this thrust-and-parry recreation amongst brokerages is Compass’ lawsuit against REBNY, filed lower than every week in the past. Per week earlier, it was REX suing Zillow for what it deemed anticompetitive practices.

Within the previous two years, it was totally different agent teams suing the National Association of Realtors and numerous MLSs for the adoption and implementation of the Clear Cooperation Policy (CC Coverage), which requires brokerages to enter their itemizing inside one enterprise day of promoting the property to the general public.

All of those personal antitrust lawsuits have one factor in widespread: Brokerages or agent teams, stymied within the pursuit of their enterprise fashions by sure business affiliation guidelines and competitor practices, allege that such guidelines and practices have damage their potential to compete and thereby harmed shoppers in violation of antitrust legal guidelines.

The plaintiffs in these instances search to guard themselves from rivals by wrapping themselves within the cloak of antitrust crusaders. Satirically, their allegations of shopper hurt are terribly imprecise and virtually by no means quantified.

The response of business leaders to the adoption of the CC Coverage by NAR and its implementation by the MLSs is the clearest instance of such a habits and value inspecting intimately.

One month earlier than NAR adopted the CC Coverage in November of 2019, Shiny MLS which serves mid-Atlantic markets, adopted an almost identical rule. It drew instant pushback from Compass, which was touting its “Coming Quickly” listings on the time. Compass fired the first shot within the struggle that adopted with a “pre-litigation letter” (no matter that’s) to BrightMLS management.

Just a few months later, inside weeks of the CCP implementation deadline of Could 1, 2020, each Top Agent Network (TAN) and sued NAR and choose MLSs. After losing its case in February of this yr, announced earlier this month that it could enchantment the dismissal of its case.

The principle allegation of those authorized threats was the identical: NAR and its member MLSs, by requiring brokerages to comply with the CC Coverage, had violated federal antitrust legal guidelines. Not surprisingly, each the TAN and PLS lawsuits had been dismissed, the previous with the proper to refile if chance of success on the deserves had been proven.

Bare makes an attempt to guard enterprise fashions

To these of us who’ve studied, taught or practiced antitrust legislation, the conclusion reached by the courts in these two instances was completely predictable. These lawsuits and the anti-CC Coverage rhetoric that’s very a lot nonetheless alive on actual property boards ignore essentially the most central precept of antitrust legislation: Antitrust legal guidelines exist to guard competitors, not rivals.

Alleging shopper hurt, vaguely and abstractly, as a result of an business rule or a enterprise observe hurts one’s potential to compete with others is not a displaying of antitrust violations. Each criticism, beginning with Compass’ pre-litigation letter in October 2019 to’s present enchantment of its dismissal, make roughly the identical argument, which fits one thing like this:

  • Our enterprise mannequin is nice for shoppers
  • The business rule or enterprise observe harms our potential to pursue our enterprise mannequin
  • Subsequently, the rule or observe in query harms shoppers and violates antitrust legal guidelines

The allegations typically begin and finish with self-praise and an assertion of how pro-competitive the plaintiff’s enterprise mannequin is. There’s little or no effort to point out the potential shopper advantages of the CC Coverage, like transparency and most publicity.

As for the alleged financial hurt to shoppers, it’s neither particular nor measured. Certainly, the very logic of those lawsuits and the dearth of proof of hurt lay naked the truth that these threats and lawsuits had been thinly disguised makes an attempt by brokerages and agent teams to guard themselves.

Every plaintiff sought to guard its particular enterprise mannequin — “Coming Soon” listings within the case of Compass, off-market listings within the case of TAN and PLS. This isn’t what antitrust legislation is about. In reality, it’s a perversion of antitrust legislation.

In fact, no commerce affiliation rule is unambiguously pro-consumer or anti-consumer. In antitrust instances that contain such guidelines, the courtroom will ask itself whether or not the patron hurt from such a rule is bigger than the profit that flows from it.

Within the case of the Clear Cooperation Coverage, the particular query dealing with the courts was this: Does the alleged shopper hurt ensuing from the CC Coverage outweigh the profit to consumers and sellers from broader dissemination of itemizing data ensuing from it?

In all situations, the courts dominated no. The truth that these instances had been summarily dismissed merely implies that the courts discovered them to be bare makes an attempt to guard enterprise fashions.

There are, after all, situations the place getting into an inventory on the MLS may hurt the vendor. In recognizing this, most MLSs carved out exceptions and processes for such exceptions.

As an agent, I as soon as represented the client within the buy of an off-market home the place the household of the vendor who was dwelling at house and affected by dementia needed to regulate tightly all showings. One can simply give you different situations the place the vendor could possibly be harmed by the CC Policy, and nobody argues that there must be no exceptions.

In reality, NAR arguably gave into strain from the bigger brokerages in creating the “Workplace Unique” exception. Given the allowance for cheap exceptions to the CC Coverage, the conclusion grows stronger that it was not competitors and shoppers that the plaintiffs sought to guard, however their enterprise fashions and themselves. In any case, good guidelines shouldn’t be outlined by exceptions.

The conclusion that the CC Coverage doesn’t violate antitrust legislation is to not defend all MLS practices from antitrust scrutiny. One observe that probably violates antitrust legal guidelines is the requirement {that a} cooperating dealer fee should be supplied by the vendor for the property to be listed on the MLS.

Though brokers and brokerages should not allowed to debate purchaser’s agent commissions, mechanisms that facilitate increased costs or commissions are arguably anti-competitive. In reality, the declare that the cooperating dealer fee requirement is such a facilitating mechanism is the core thesis of the varied class-action lawsuits at present making their method via the federal courts.

In contrast to the lawsuits in opposition to the CC Coverage, these class-action lawsuits characteristic plaintiffs who’re shoppers, not business gamers. Extra particularly they’re sellers who argue particular financial hurt within the type of measurably increased commissions.

Restraints of commerce

Lastly, I additionally need to deal with the latest situations of 1 brokerage suing one other for antitrust violations and restraints of commerce.

Regardless of the id of the formal defendant, the Compass versus REBNY is one such case. On this case, the habits of two brokerages are central to the allegations, regardless of their omission as named defendants.

The opposite outstanding case is REX v. Zillow. Each lawsuits principally allege that the enterprise practices of their rivals hurt them and, by extension, shoppers. Such lawsuits are bare makes an attempt to guard rivals and never competitors.

Brokerages must be free to retain listings obtained by its brokers even because the brokers themselves transfer to a different brokerage (Compass versus REBNY) and brokerages ought to be capable of show their very own listings with no matter precedence or rating methodology it chooses (REX versus Zillow).

There are compelling effectivity causes for each. Within the former case, courts are requested to sanction interference with contracts. Within the latter, courts are successfully requested to manage the structure and content material of dealer web sites.

Neither of those instances lay out shopper hurt in particular and quantifiable methods. Discuss heavy-handed judicial activism. Or is it crony capitalism? Neither are clearly the intent or objective of antitrust legal guidelines.

Competitors has prevailed

I finish with this remark: A lot of the latest antitrust litigation the place the plaintiff has been a dealer or agent group have an anti-competitive subtext seldom mentioned. Sure gamers, particularly the nationwide brokerages, need to turn out to be the de facto personal MLS. This aspiration is often expressed as, “We need to be the Amazon of actual property.”

The bold technique takes numerous types: extra listings than others, extra forms of listings than others, extra distinctive listings than others and earlier listings than others.

“Not so quick,” mentioned NAR and the MLSs as they carried out the CC Coverage. “Not so quick,” mentioned the courts as they summarily dismissed the personal antitrust lawsuits difficult the CC Coverage.

In the long run, competitors has prevailed, at the least for now. Better transparency, simpler house searches. No hidden cache of listings, extra publicity for homesellers. No bias favoring massive brokerages, competitors on an equal footing.

Extra competitors and innovation in providers. A lot of the personal antitrust lawsuits in actual property are furtive makes an attempt to additional monopoly via larger management of data, strengthened in flip by highly effective community economics.

The aim of antitrust legal guidelines as utilized to the true property business is to not shield or advance the pursuits of particular actual property brokerages or agent associations — it’s to allow competitors amongst brokerages and amongst brokers, and it’s to guard consumers and sellers of actual property.

These shoppers are the suitable “models of research” for antitrust functions —not brokers, not agent teams and never brokerages. Balancing shopper profit and hurt is the right solution to analyze allegations of antitrust. Fortunately, our courts know their antitrust legislation.

Maybe it’s time for our business to take a collective step again and focus its energies on sellers and consumers, as an alternative of rivals. In any case, antitrust legal guidelines exist to guard competitors, not rivals.

Editor’s be aware: A earlier model of this text acknowledged: “Not surprisingly, each the TAN and PLS lawsuits had been dismissed summarily.” Nevertheless, within the case of TAN, it has the proper to refile if chance of success on the deserves had been proven.

Bob Mathew is the principal dealer with MXW Real Estate within the Washington, D.C. space. Join with him on Facebook or Instagram.


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